What is 'cloning'?
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'Cloning' is a technique that is used for making an exact copy of a living being. The copy has the same genetic materials as its original.

Cloning, how is it done?
This will be a little bit technical. Don't be scared.
- You take a cell from the skin of the person or the animal that you want to clone.
- Then you make a 'cottage' for the cell from the skin. You can build the cottage by taking the ovule of a woman or a female animal and take away its DNA.
- You put the skin-cell in the 'cottage' (that is: the empty ovum).
- Now an embryo starts to grow.
- Transport the embryo to the womb of a surrogate mother.

A simple procedure? Not really, when put into practice. Before clone-sheep Dolly was born, hundreds of trials had failed. And the young Dolly had already diseases that normal sheep get only when they are older.

Are two clones as much alike as two peas in a pod?
A clone and its original can be quit different. Who you are and what you look like, isn't defined by your DNA only, but also by your way of life. Imagine that you tan a lot, work out three times a week, eat healthy food always – and your clone never does. In that case, you'll become more tanned, more muscular and taller than your clone. And your daily behaviour is influenced by the place where you live, the persons you are familiar with and thousands of other factors. That is why the cloned cat in chapter 52 and 54 behaves so strangely. She has never learned to behave like a normal cat.
Which species of animals has been cloned?
Until now, clones of human beings never were made. Only animals have been cloned. Firstly, with more or less success, frogs and mice were cloned. Larger mammals were next. These are the most famous examples.

1996, Britain, sheep Dolly
She had the name of a sumptuous American country singer. As mentioned before, the sheep was not very healthy. She was prone to rheumatism. In 2003 she suffered a severe boat of pneumonia and passed away.

1998, Holly en Belle
Holly and Belle are the first two cloned cows.

2003, A French-Chinese group of scientists succeeds in cloning a few rats.
Out of 129 embryo-clones three rats were born; one of them died within two hours.

2004, United States, the cat Little Nicky
The first commercial copycat. Price: 50.000 dollars. Intended for Julie, whose 17 year old cat Little Nicky deceased. Name of the company: Genetics Savings and Clone (GSC)..

2005, United States, more cats
The company GSC dropped the prices. You can get a copycat for 32.000 dollars, but you have to pay extra charges for the storage of cells in liquid nitrogen. Businessman David from New York is one of the clients. "You'll get a second chance," he says. "You can correct the mistakes you made with your first cat." His first cat had a fatal stroke after having been scared. David intends to treat his second cat so well that the risk of a repetition of such an incident will be minimal.

2005, South Korea dogs
First is Snuppy, an Afghan Greyhound. In the following years a lot of cloned dogs are produced for 50.000 dollar a dog. For example, in 2008, the American Miss McKinney happily embraced five cloned puppies of her deceased pit-bull Booger. She had an enormous affection for Booger, a street-dog who helped her spontaneously when another dog attacked her.
She had Booger taken into her house until his death, two years ago.

2007, United States, monkeys
The Oregon National Primate Research Institute is able to breed embryos of monkeys. But the process of a grown embryo having developed into of a cloned baby-monkey has not occurred so far.

2009, Dubai. The cloned camel Injaz is born
Its DNA is coming from a camel slaughtered four years before. A surrogate-mother camel carried it in her womb during 378 days.

2009, Korea. Again dogs are cloned: four puppies, this time
Er zijn genen toegevoegd, waardoor de honden in het donker een rood schijnsel kunnen vertonen. Onder een ultraviolette lamp lichten ze op.

2010, India. The first cloned buffalo is born.
The calf weighs 96 pounds and is healthy.
Books with the theme of "Cloning"
Warning to readers: These descriptions will sometimes include details concerning the plot and endings of the stories concerned.

Artemis Fowl: The Opal Deception (Eoin Colfer, 2005)

Fourth part of an Irish fantasy series. The theme of "cloning" is a secondary theme in the narrative. A female villain manages to escape from a prison with the help of a clone.

Blueprint (Charlotte Kerner, 1999)
A German novel for young readers. Original title: Blueprint, Blaupause. Blueprint, Blaupause. A successful concert pianist contracts a serious illness that impairs her performances. She gives birth to a daughter that is really a clone of herself. This second self can take her place as pianist in concerts. In the end the clone turns against the real pianist. Has been filmed.

The Bones of Time (Katheen Ann Goonan, 1996)
American novel that is situated on the island of Hawaii in 2034. Clones are seen in this book from a more positive viewpoint. The history of Hawaii is the other major theme of this book.

The Boys from Brazil (Ira Levin, 1976)
This book takes place in 1974 in Paraguay. Josef Mengele has managed to create 94 clones of Adolph Hitler (Mengele was the German doctor that actually existed and worked in the concentration camp of Auschwitz.). The clones are all boys fourteen years of age. Mengele organizes their upbringing such that they all psychologically develop into real miniature Hitler's. A Nazi hunter uncovers the scheme and while he does everything in his power to stop Mengele, the book ends with an uncertain outcome. The book was made into a film.

Carbon Copy: Meet 'The First Human Clone' (Richard Kadrey, 1998)
This short story by an American writer centers on a married couple that has lost their baby. They use the DNA material of the deceased baby to create a cloned embryo, such that the woman can give birth to an identical new baby. The central issue of the book is the discussion between those in favor and those against this procedure. The TV version was known as both No Ordinary Baby and After Amy.

Cyteen (C.J. Cherryh, 1988)

Prize winning book by an American fiction writer. The narrative is situated in the year 2300 in a far off galaxy. The central theme of the book is the distinction between individuals and between the two different types of clones: those created in an artificial womb and those made from cells of a deceased person.

The Dune novels (Frank Herbert, 1963)
A renowned series of science fiction novels. The first is entitled Dune (This book has been made into a film and a computer game). Cloning is not the primary theme of the narrative, which is situated on a sand planet in the future. In the later installment of the series, Dune Messiah, human clones are created. While they have the physical appearance of the original, their brains are totally neutral. This makes them ideal for use as assassins.

The Angel maker (Stefan Brijs, 2005)
A novel written originally in Dutch about cloning. The author is Belgian. A large part of the book is situated nearby a point where the German, Belgian, and Dutch borders all meet – a "three country border point". An important distinction between this book and other novels and films concerning cloning is that this narrative is not situated in the future but in the period of 1984 to 1990. Another unusual point is that the central character, Viktor Hoppe, does not create his clones for financial gain, but to challenge God. (What do you think? Is this last point a similarity or a contrast to Julius Strindberg in "Copycat"?)

The Fall of Hyperion (Dan Simmons, 1991)
Second volume in a four part science fiction series. A human civilization has settled on a distant planet. Among the inhabitants are clones of, for instance, the English poet John Keats (who really did exist).

The Genesis Code (John Case, 1997)
The theme of cloning is only one of many in this American action thriller, written by the duo author-team: Jim and Carolyn Hougan.

Glory Season (Davin Brin, 1993)
This science fiction novel was written by a professor in astronomy. The narrative is situated in the distant future on a different planet than Earth.

Jurassic Park (Michael Crichton, 1990)

Well known from the successful film version. The narrative concentrates itself on a very specific and original variation on the cloning theme. Cloned duplicates of dinosaurs are created from prehistoric DNA samples. This is possible due to the fact that millions of years ago mosquitos had bitten and drawn blood from dinosaurs. Several of these mosquitos had been perfectly preserved in the sap of trees where they had landed. The sap then solidified quickly and there they stayed, intact and saved for millions of years. In theory it is even in reality not impossible. The book reveals in this scenario that it is considerably dangerous to play around with wildlife, especially when it is this kind of bloodthirsty monster.

Invasion of the Body Snatchers (Jack Finney, 1955)
People are captured by clones that grow from large plants. The clones resemble real people, but behave in a strange zombie-like and unemotional manner. This novel has been filmed twice.

Imperial Earth (Arthur C. Clarke, 1975)
The story takes place in the year 2276. The main character belongs to a group of clones that live on a moon of Saturn. He travels to Earth and observes the problems there from an alien point of view.

Me Two (Mary C. Ryan, 1991)
The subject of this American book for young readers resembles that of the animation serial Carl2 (see commentary of filmed version below). A boy that doesn't do very well at school comes in contact with scientists. They give him a clone of himself that does his schoolwork brilliantly. Has been filmed.

Mr. Murder (Dean Koontz, 1993)
Thriller from an American author. Main character is a relatively successful writer of thrillers that receives a visit from a clone that was produced by the government. The clone turns out to have absolutely no sense of conscience.

The Multiple Man (Ben Bova, 1976)

Novel by an American writer that takes place in the USA in 1990 - the future (1990 was in the future when the book was written). The book centers on the cloning of the president.

Never let me go (Kazuo Ishiguro, 2005)
Ishiguro is a half Japanese, half English writer. The narrative takes place in the English countryside. The main characters are several students at what seems like a typical English boarding school. But as the story progresses it becomes clear that the students are actually clones that – as is Copycat – are meant as hosts for reserve human organs for their owners. In contrast to Copycat, these clones can travel freely throughout England. The book met with considerable criticism when it appeared.

Pandora Box, part I (Alcante, 2005)
First part of an unusual eight volume series of animation books from France. The original title is "L'orgueil". In each part one of the classic Greek sins are matched with modern technology in a modern story. In this part, that deals with illegal irregularities during an American presidential election, clones play a role.

Possibility of an Island (Michel Houellebecq, 2005)
Translated form the French, the book's original title is La possibilité d'une île. The narrative centers on a comic entertainer from the beginning of the 21st century and his cloned ancestors 2000 years later. Was filmed with the author as film director.

Seizure (Robin Cook, 2003)
The American writer Robin Cook has written several thrillers based on medical themes. In this case, a conservative politician opposes cloning and stands in opposition to a scientist that advocates it. The politician runs into ideological problems when he himself contracts a disease which can be cured by his opponent the scientist.

Solaris (Stanislav Lem, 1961)
Translated from the Polish original, the book is a famous science fiction novel. The narrative takes place in a space station that circles the planet Solaris. Strange things happen on this space station. The psychologist Chris Kelvin travels there from Earth to explore what is happening. Soon after his arrival his wife Rheya, who died ten years earlier, suddenly appears there, at least so it seems. In reality she is a special kind of clone: when one is nearby Solaris, parts of one's own thoughts can become reality. When Chris puts her in a rocket and sends her away into space, this doesn't help. She remains in his thoughts and thus a new clone of her appears at the station. Solaris is a very good story that examines the question of what we consider "real" or "a real person" and why? The book has been filmed twice.

Spider Man / Spider Woman (Stan Lee, 1962 e.v.)
American series of comic books centering on a super hero/super heroine. After a while Peter Parker finds it more and more difficult to combine his life as a family man with his work as a spidery super hero. To solve this problem his makes use of a clone. In number 102 of Spider Woman it is revealed that the super heroine is actually a clone of Peter Parker, or as it were, Spiderman.

Starsplit (Kathryn Lasky, 1999)
An exciting English book for young readers. Takes place in the year 3038 and the main character is a female teenager. In the story, cloning is commonplace. The chromosomes of clones are even altered to give them extra talents. When the girl and her clone meet each other things become life- threateningly dangerous because this kind of confrontation is forbidden in the Bio-Union.

The Third Twin (Ken Follett, 1996)

A lengthy novel by an English bestseller author. Murder, science and an identical twin are the main elements of this not so positively reviewed book.

To Live Forever (Jack Vance, 1956)
American science fiction novel. The story is situated in a time when humans no longer die. Since fatal accidents can always happen, clones of humans are created and saved. The memory and personality of the clones are regularly updated.

Where Late the Sweet Birds Sang (Kate Wilhelm, 1976)
Award winning novel by American fantasy and science fiction writer. Centers on an isolated group of people that have survived the Holocaust, and who try to keep on living by way of clone processes.

Y: The Last Man (Brian K. Vaughan & Pia Guerra, 2002-2008)
American comic book series. "Y" is not only the first letter of the main character's name, "Yorick", but it also stands for the Y-chromosome, that males have and not females. The story is situated in the year 2002. Due to an epidemic, all males on the planet have died, except for Yorick. Cloning is used to produce new descendants.
Films with the theme of "Cloning"
Warning to readers: These descriptions will sometimes include details concerning the plot and endings of the stories concerned.

Æon Flux (Karyn Kusama, 2005)
The American film takes place in the year 2011. Due to a virus outbreak, only 1% of the population is still alive. This group lives in a walled-in city and is unaware of this history of sickness. It turns out that they are all clones, made from recycled parts from the dead. They are finally successful in escaping from the city and spreading out over the world. There also exists an animation version of this story for television, and also four comic books and a video game.

After Amy (Richard Kadrey, 1998) - IMDB
TV filming of the story Carbon Copy: Meet the First Human Clone. (See book commentary above)

Alien Resurrection (Jean-Pierre Jeunet, 1997) - IMDB
This is the fourth science fiction film in a series that started with Alien. The main character is played, as in the first three films, by the actor Sigourney Weaver. While she actually dies at the end of the third film, in Alien Resurrection a clone of her is created that can continue the fight against the alien monsters.

Blueprint, Blaupause (Rolf Schübel, 2003) - IMDB
German filming of the similarly named novel for young readers. (see book commentary above of Blueprint, Blaupause)

The Boys from Brazil (Franklin J. Schaffner, 1978) - IMDB
Based on the similarly named novel (see book commentary above of The Boys from Brazil).

Carl2 (Eva Almos & Jennifer Cowan, 2006)
Canadian animation series, where a lazy fourteen year old boy orders a clone of himself via the internet. This clone makes a better impression on people than his original.

Clone (BBC, 2008) - IMDB
British comical TV series. A group of clines is created as super soldiers. The cloning process was not really completely successful; these clones prefer hugging each other to fighting.

The Clones of Bruce Lee (Joseph Kong, 1977) - IMDB
In the narrative, after the karate expert/superhero Bruce Lee has died, three clones of him are created that are to protect the world from villains. Interesting detail: this film, made in Hong Kong, uses three different actors for the three clones. The Clones of Bruce Lee is seen in general as a rather second-rate fight film.

The Cloning of Joanna May (Philip Saville, 1992)
Two part TV series based on the similarly named novel (see book commentary above).).

Code 46 (Michael Winterbottom, 2003) - IMDB
British drama situated in the nearby future. Clones in substantial numbers inhabit the world and cannot be distinguished from real people. Consequently the human race is threatened by an inadequacy in individual variation. Therefore sex is only allowed with someone whose DNA different is than your own (DNA has 46 chromosomes, thus the title).

Creator (Ivan Passer, 1985) - IMDB
Based on the similarly named novel (see book commentary of the Devils artist).

The Fifth Element (Luc Besson, 1997)
French – American science fiction film with an overly complex story line. The fifth element is an alternative name for Leeloo, a god-like figure that can save the universe. Unfortunately she is destroyed, but luckily one of her hands has survived. Thus Leeloo can be cloned, and can still save the universe.

Futureworld (Richard Heffron, 1976) - IMDB
This American film is situated in the nearby future. Two reporters visit an amusement park. They discover that the park is run by a villain whose goal is to lure world leaders to the park. There they will be cloned. Thereafter the clones will take over the world, such that the villain will have all power in his hands.

Godsend (Nick Hamm, 2004) - IMDB
This American horror film takes place in the present time. The narrative is similar to that of No Ordinary Baby. A married couple loses their eight year old son. By recommendation of a doctor, a clone of him is created. The clone-son develops normally up until his eighth year, but thereafter he develops various negative personality traits. The film was not particularly popular, but still poses an interesting question: if you lose a child, what is the benefit to creating a clone of him?

Invasion of the Body Snatchers (Don Siegel, 1956; Philip Kaufman, 1978)
This horror film (in two different interpretations in 1956 and 1978) is based on the similarly named novel. See book commentary above.

The Island (Michael Bay, 2005)
This American action film takes place in the year 2019. A group of people live in a beautiful but enclosed institute. Each inhabitant hopes to be chosen to be able to move to the "island", a paradise-like location. This group is deceived: they are actually only clones, and those that are chosen go not to the island (which doesn't even exist), but are cut up for use as organ donation. In contrast to Copycat the initiative here is taken by the clones themselves. Two of them break out and mange in the end to free the other clone-inhabitants. See also Parts: The Clonus Horror.

Jurassic Park (Steven Spielberg, 1993) - IMDB
Based on the similarly named novel (see book commentary above). The film was a sensational success, particularly due to the spectacular computer animation. Never before were such realistic dinosaurs seen in a film.

Moon (Duncan Jones, 2009) - IMDB
Originally British science fiction film about a man that spends three years alone on a research base on the moon. At the end of the period he discovers a clone of himself.

Multiplicity (Harold Ramis, 1996) - IMDB
American comedy. A family man runs short of time for his wife, the other members of his family and his career. So he asks a scientist to make first one clone of himself. Soon after that he asks for a whole set of clones. For both the man and his family and the clones, everything works out just fine. The film was not particularly successful.

Never Let Me Go (Mark Romanek, 2010) - IMDB
Film version of the similarly named book by Kazu Ishiguro (See book commentary).

No Ordinary Baby (Peter Werner, 2001) - IMDB
Film version of the similarly named book. See book commentary.

The Other Me (Manny Coto, 2000) - IMDB
Children's film, produced by Disney Productions, based on the book Me Two. See book commentary.

Parts: The Clonus Horror (Robert S. Fiveson, 1979)
This low budget film is situated in the nearby future in the USA. At an isolated location in the desert clones are created. As in Copycat they are meant as biological material for organ donations. These clones are deceived into thinking that they are normal humans. In contrast with Copycat is the clone here the hero of the story: he doesn't trust or accept his situation, escapes from captivity and comes in contact with the real world. The film exhibits numerous similarities with The Island from 2005. The creators of The Clonus Horror went to court and sued the makers of The Island concerning this uncanny similarity and was granted a financial award.

Phineas and Ferb (Dan Povenmire, 2007 – 2009) - IMDB
American animation film series for young children about two step brothers. In part nine, one of the professors makes clones.

Pokémon: The First Movie (Kunihiko Yuyama, 1998)
Part of the Japanese conglomerate of Pokemon games, products and films. The Pokemon called Mewtwo is created in a laboratory from the DNA of Mew and encounters numerous battles and adventures.

La possibilité d'une île (Michel Houellebecq, 2008) - IMDB
Film version of The possibility of an Island. See book commentary.

The Prestige (Christopher Nolan, 2006) - IMDB
This is the only film that takes place in at the end of the 19th century where cloning plays any kind of role. The narrative centers on a conflict between two magicians that both strive to be the better of the other. One of them can make people disappear from a stage and almost immediately reappear somewhere else. As it turns out he does this by making use of a human copy-machine. In order to make sure that no one discovers his secret, after each performance of the trick he drowns the clone he has used.

Family Guy (Jerry Langford, 2009) - IMDB
Family Guy is an American comical animation series for adults where sex plays a significant role. Quagmire's Baby is the sixth part in the eighth season. Various characters in the show create a stupid clone of themselves, that they then use as butlers or workers.

Replicant (Ringo Lam, 2001)
American science fiction action film starring the Belgian muscle-man Claude van Damme as a clone. A police detective is searching for a serial murderer. DNA material from the murderer has been found. With the help of this material a clone of the murderer is made (Claude van Damme). The clone, looking like a man of 40 years old, is as innocent as a child. But he is of great use in finding and capturing the murderer.

Repli-Kate (Frank Longo, 2002) - IMDB
In this comedy, scientists make a clone of a woman named Kate. They decide to make their "Repli- Kate" into the ideal woman for a man: that is, a woman that loves beer, football and sex. In the end the scientists come to the conclusion that real women are more attractive than duplicates.

The 6th Day (Roger Spottiswoode, 2000) - IMDB
High production action film with Arnold Schwarzenegger as the main character. The film takes place in the year 2015. The cloning of animals and internal organs is allowed and common, but not of humans. But this happens none the less in secret. The protagonist of the story is chased by a group of murderers while his personal clone takes his place with his family.

Sleeper (Woody Allen, 1973)
The film takes place in the 22nd century. The USA is governed by a dictator. After he is eliminated by a bomb attack, his followers try to use his nose – that was recovered from the bomb attack – as material to make a clone of him. This comedy is sometimes referred to as the "best comedy ever made". Writer and director Woody Allen also plays the main character in the film.

Sliders (Tracy Tormé, 1995 – 2000) - IMDB
American comic science fiction TV series. In each episode, the main characters enter into a parallel universe by way of a "worm-hole". There they see many similarities with Earth, but also significant differences. For instance, they find themselves in a world in which the city of San Francisco is one big prison. In episode 19 from the fourth season they land in a world where clones are created to supply people with extra body parts.

Solaris ( Tarkofski, 1972, 2. Steven Soderbergh, 2002) - IMDB
Both films are based on the similarly named book (see book commentary of the Solaris). The Russian version made in 1972 is both beautiful and mysterious; the American version made 30 years later is considerably less impressive.

Star Gate (Jonathan Glassner, 1997 - 2007)
American science fiction TV serial centering on the "Stargate machine" with which people can instantaneously travel through the universe. In season 10, the villain Baal has created an army of clones.

Star Trek: Nemesis (Stuart Baird, 2002) - IMDB
In this 10th film from the Star Trek series, a clone plays an important role in the story. He is created from DNA material from Captain Jean-Luc Picard, the commander of the starship The Enterprise. The clone is a younger version of the captain and a devious adversary.

Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones (George Lucas, 2002) - IMDB
An army of clones are employed to protect the Galactic Republic from rebel planets. Between 2003 and 2005 an animation version of the film was produced, and in 2007 a computer animation version was realized.

Tsubasa Chronicle (Mashimo, 2005) - IMDB
Japanese fantasy animation series for children. Besides various monsters, clones play a minimal role in the narrative.

The X-files (Chris Carter, 1993 – 2002) - IMDB
American TV series centering on two FBI agents that investigate numerous supernatural cases. In the first episode of the fourth season clones appear in the story line.

Y: The Last Man (D.J. Caruso, 2011) - IMDB
Film version of similarly named comic book (see commentary above).